Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease. The pathogenesis of AD involves interplay between skin-resident keratinocytes & endothelial cells, infiltrating immune cells (Th2 cells and later Th1 cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, mast cells, and eosinophils), and activated peripheral sensory nerves. Interleukin (IL)-33 is a new member of the IL-1 family that plays a role in the induction of production of Th2 cytokines.
Thus, IL33 may have an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. Objectives:
To assess serum and tissue IL-33 level in patients with AD and to correlate its level with the disease severity. Methods:
This case control study included 30 patients diagnosed clinically as having AD according to Hanifin and Rajka criteria. Further, 10 age and sex matched healthy controls were recruited. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on clinical severity according to Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI).
Blood sample collection and a three mm punch biopsy from lesional skin was taken and homogenized for assessment of IL-33 using ELISA technique in all subjects. Results:
There was a high statistically significant difference between cases and controls regarding both serum & tissue IL-33 levels (P<0.01). Also, there was a high statistically significant positive correlation between EASI score and both serum & tissue IL-33 level among cases. Conclusion:
The current study suggests that IL-33 has an important role in AD pathogenesis as well as an indicator of severity of the disease.